On the right side of your body under the area of your ribs, if you put your right hand, this is where your liver is. The liver is the largest gland in the body. It holds over half-litre (one pint) of blood at any time and performs more than 500 functions. The liver is a dark reddish-brown organ comprises of two lobes. These lobes are further divided into smaller 100,000 lobes called lobules. Over 60% liver is made up of liver cells called hepatocytes, this is where detoxification processes occur and absorption of nutrients take place. Hepatic artery and portal vein supply blood to the liver.
Three-quarter of detoxification takes place in the liver and other one-quarter takes place in the intestine. This detoxification process is a very complex process. Let’s see how our liver under-takes this tremendous task of detoxification besides other activities.
99% of bacteria and other toxins are cleared by our liver before it enters general circulation. This cleansing process is performed by specialist cells in the liver called Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages. These macrophages are immune system cells that engulf and destroy toxins. Kupffer cells sit at the portal vein of the liver and engulf bacteria in less than 0.1 seconds, thus we can call these highly efficient high-speed macrophages warrior cells.
While Kupffer cells perform their duty, they produce inflammatory chemicals which need to be cleared out with antioxidants. Glutathione in the liver is a primary antioxidant. The small invading cells which escape from the destruction by Kupffer cells are taken by hepatocytes to the bile duct for elimination. The virus responsible for mononucleosis, Epstein – Barr virus as well as hepatitis viruses including A, B, C and D target hepatocytes.
When the liver is unable to detoxify in an optimal manner, toxins and bacteria are released back into the bloodstream, where the immune system produces antibodies against these culprits. Hepatitis patients have a high level of such antibodies in their bloodstream, indicating liver malfunction.
The liver has other weapons too, in order to eliminate toxins. This includes the production of nearly one litre of bile each day. From the liver, bile goes to intestines, where it is absorbed by the fibre and in the faecal matter then excreted from the body. This potent dark green substance breaks down fats for easy absorption, enhances involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract and slows down the process of decay or rotting of other organic matter in the elimination process.
A high level of fibre in the diet is crucial so that the pool of toxins in the bile can be escorted out of the body in the faeces. Otherwise, these toxins in the bile may reabsorb in the system.
Detoxification in the liver is a two-stage process viz. Phase1 and Phase2. In these two phases, the liver uses enzymes to accomplish the task of detoxification. In Phase1 poisons, toxins, histamine, hormones and other inflammatory chemicals are invaded which our own body makes. Enzymes in Phase1 either neutralize these noxious compounds or break them down into other forms. These other forms are processed by phase2 enzymes.
Remarkably even after severe damage, the liver cannot only recover completely but also can regenerate itself.
Fifty to hundred enzymes which take part in the detoxification process in phase1 are grouped under cytochrome P450. Each enzyme has a pivotal status individually and collectively in the detoxification process in phase1. A P450 enzyme system is bestowed upon us by mother nature as a great gift, but all of us have weaknesses and strengths in this system. Malnutrition and environmental toxins weaken the P450 system. Yet there are individuals who have strong P450 system, it is due to this very fact such lucky ones are chain smokers for a whole life without getting lung cancer.
One of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 system is an enzyme encoded by the gene CYP2D6. When toxins are introduced into the body, by whatever route, and enter the bloodstream, they undergo a series of enzymatic reactions which firstly renders them non-toxic. They are then chemically changed further so that they can be ultimately excreted, in the urine for example. CYP2D6 is one of the most important enzymes that play a part in the initial stages of toxin neutralisation.
Homeovitality has developed a Sequence-Specific Homeopathic DNA (SSHD) molecule to target gene CYP2D6. The suboptimal level of this very gene product either slows down or hinders the neutralisation of chemical toxins due to pharmaceutical drugs. By targeting the CYP2D6 gene, the function of this gene is optimised for efficient elimination of toxins from the body. Thus, natural detoxification system of the body is regularised .
When a P450 enzyme attacks a toxin, it makes it water-soluble for excretion through urine or chemically neutralises it. If this is not possible then this toxin is temporarily converted into a more active form of a chemical that can be then handled by Phase2 enzymes.
Every time liver attacks a toxin and metabolises it; free radicals are produced. If nature hasn’t made arrangement to handle these free radicals, these free radicals can damage the liver. The most powerful free-radical fighter and master antioxidant in the liver is glutathione. The liver uses in both phases of detoxification processes glutathione. The shortage of glutathione inevitably means liver damage.
As stated above glutathione is one of the body’s most powerful anti-oxidants. It also plays a significant role in recycling other important antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E. Glutathione also plays a major role in detoxification by chemically altering toxins so that they can be removed safely from the body. Unfortunately, many factors that we are exposed to on a daily basis such as poor diet, pollution, toxins, medications, stress, trauma, ageing, infections and radiation all deplete the availability of this most important health promoter.
The gene GSTM1 improves heath by recycling glutathione levels in the body. Glutathione is one of the body’s most important antioxidants and anti-toxins. The Homeovitality SSHD-GT1 molecule targets the GSTM1 gene to promote its function .
Phase2 enzymes have a huge responsibility to eliminate those toxins which cannot be eliminated in phase1. These toxins are dangerous and are carcinogenic in nature. Phase1 and phase2 detoxification processes must be finely synchronised with each other.
Homeopathic mother tincture Cardus Marinus (Milk Thistle) is a potent remedy to clear the inflation of liver and optimises liver function. It protects against chemical poisoning. The active ingredient silymarin saves the liver from liver damage due to toxic elements.
In his, Materia Medica Dr William Boericke suggests” the action of this drug (Cardus Marinus) is cantered in the liver, and portal system, causing soreness, pain, jaundice. Has a specific relation to the vascular system. Abuse of alcoholic beverages, especially beer. Varicose veins and ulcers. Diseases of miners, associated with asthma. Dropsical conditions depending on liver disease, and when due to pelvic congestion and hepatic disease. Disturbs sugar metabolism. Influenza when the liver is affected. Debility. haemorrhages, especially connected with hepatic disease.”
Mother tincture and lower potencies of this remedy are of great use in case of liver disease.